Gilsonite application is as below:
- Oil base drilling
- Printing Ink
- Roofing Felt
- Paint and Coat
- Mix with Asphalt
- Foundry Sand Additive
- Steel Creating Additives
Gilsonite for Oil Base Drilling.
Oil based drilling fluids and advances in drilling fluid compositions are described in applicant’s co-pending application PCT CA2007/000646 filed April 18, 2007, and incorporated herein by reference. This co-pending application describes the chemistry of organoclays and primary emulsifiers for use in various applications including oil-based drilling fluids and various compositions where in the viscosity of the compositions may be controlled.
By way of background and in the particular case of oil muds or oil-based drilling fluids, organophilic clays have been used for the past 50 years as a component of the drilling fluid to assist in creating drilling fluids having properties that enhance the drilling process. In particular, oil-based drilling fluids are used for cooling and lubrication, removal of cuttings and maintaining the well under pressure to control ingress of liquid and gas.
Gilsonite drilling Fluid is a typical oil-based drilling mud includes an oil component (the continuous phase), a water component (the dispersed phase) and an organophilic clay (hereinafter OC) which are mixed together to form a gel (also referred to as a drilling mud or oil mud). Emulsifiers, weight agents, fluid loss additives, salts and numerous other additives may be contained or dispersed into the mud. The ability of the drilling mud to maintain viscosity and emulsion stability generally determines the quality of the drilling mud.
Gilsonite for Printing Ink
ER resins are “engineered resins”; the term “ER resin” or “Gilsonite ER resin”, as used herein, means a purified fraction of uintaite. These fractions are substantially enriched in maltenes or asphaltenes relative to natural uintaite. Merely dissolving uintaite in a solvent in which it is soluble (i.e., a solvent that dissolves greater than about 90% of the uintaite) and filtering this solution does not produce a purified fraction of uintaite as defined herein. Such a simple filtration process does not substantially change the asphaltene to maltene ratio from that of natural uintaite.
Therefore, it does not produce the asphaltene-enriched and maltene-enriched purified fraction of uintaite useful in this invention.
The term “maltene”, as used herein, refers to the fraction of uintaite that is dissolved when finely ground uintaite is contacted with 20 volumes of hot heptane at 80 solutions is filtered through a 0.8-micron filter. Maltene-enriched fractions of uintaite, such as ER-140 and ER-115, have a weight ratio of maltenes to asphaltenes of greater than about 6; preferably greater than about 15; most preferably these resins are substantially free of asphaltenes, i.e., less than 2 wt. % asphaltenes. Moreover, these resins are also substantially free of ash.
Maltene-enriched ER resins as defined herein have softening points below about 140 relatives to natural uintaite; they have at least 50% fewer asphaltenes than natural uintaite, preferably at least 75% fewer, and more preferably at least 90% fewer. These maltene-enriched ER resins also have reduced mineral-derived insoluble, i.e., ash. These insoluble are below 0.1% by weight, preferably below 0.05%. The maltene-enriched fractions of uintaite useful in this invention comprise at least 60% maltenes, preferably at least 80% maltenes and most preferably at least 90% maltenes.
Maltene-enriched ER resins have lower softening points than those of natural uintaite. Solution viscosity, viscosity stability, and melt viscosity are also substantially improved over available grades of natural uintaite. The less soluble, high melting, asphaltene-enriched fractions are also called ER resins.
Gilsonite for Roofing felt
It may be well to preliminary discuss one of the ingredients which I employ namely, what is known as gilsonite or uintahite, a comparatively new hydrocarbon product, the nature of which is explained in an article by Locke, appearing in the Transactions of American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 16, page 162. This article states, among other things, that gilsonite possesses superior qualities as the principal ingredient in a roofing composition, and appreciating this fact I have in evolving the present invention aimed to produce a composition which will effectively utilize this substance. Used alone gilsonite has not proven satisfactory for roofing or paving purposes, being too brittle, and, moreover, not adapted for use as a base which can be tempered down to the proper consistency. I propose to combine gilsonite with asphaltum and a suitable oil in such a manner that the advantages of the gilsonite as an ingredient of a roofing composition can be had, the asphaltum supplying the deficiencies ap-‘ parent when the gilsonite is used alone, and I am thus’ enabled to procure a mixture that possesses elastic and pliable properties such. as desired in roofing-sheets and one which is at the same time durable and possessed of the required commercial characteristics
Gilsonite for Paint and Coat
There are few prior art coating compositions which combine the highly desired characteristics of economy, low raw material cost and compatibility with most of the raw materials used in the paint, varnish and enamel in dustry, and at the same time are also highly resistant to acid and alkali materials, non-corrosive toward the surface upon which they are applied, weather-resistant and of high electrical insulating value. There is, however, one composition which possesses all of these properties. This composition is one containing gilsonite as a principal constituent. For example, a Gilsonite and drying oil composition possesses all of these desirable qualities to a considerable extent.
Gilsonite is one of the purest natural bitumens available and is used’in the manufacture of black varnishes, coach varnishes, black baking enamels, japaris, insulating compositions and water-proofing compositions also this years gilsonite use as gilsonite driveway sealer . Two counties in the State of Utah are the sole source of commercial quantities of gilsonite in this country. Gilsonite, as mined in these counties, varies in its properties from one deposit to another and its properties often vary. within a given deposit. In addition, many of the more accesssible deposits are being depleted. Consequently, the industry is faced with the problem of providing a suitable replacement material for Gilsonite in such compositions.
Gilsonite for Paint
Maximum water and Weather resistance is obtained by using a paint containing gilsonite and the gas-proofed tung or oiticica (or mixtures of the two) oil without the addition of any other drying oil, but it is found that while this combination is commercially usable, it is difficult to brush, and it is preferred to add a viscosity reducing drying oil. For this purpose, it is found that perilla oil is particularly satisfactory.
Other drying oils such as linseed, soya bean, sunflower seed, hempseed, menhaden, or sardine oil may be used instead of the perilla oil. The perilla oil, however, has considerably better drying properties than the other oils mentioned.
Gilsonite, when fluxed with raw tung or oiticica oil, gives an unstable liquid, that is, one which will take on an excessive body when aging, and one which is not gas-proof.
On the other hand, when gilsonite is fluxed with tung or oiticicaoils which have been heat-treated with the additions of gums or resins in the ordinary fashion, the resulting paint becomes full of check marks and deteriorates rapidly, particularly upon exposure.
The use of the present type of oils, however, results in a paint which do not take on excessive body upon aging and at the same time does not check and deteriorate rapidly upon exposure.
Driers, such as lead, cobalt, or manganese oxide, or the like, may be incorporated to control the drying time of the finished paint. Thinning oils such as mineral spirits, solvent naphtha, or any good solvent for the gilsonite and the oils, may be incorporated to bring the paint to the desired consistency. This normally requires about 50% to 65% by weight of thinning oils.
As an example of the invention, 50 pounds of gilsonite and 10 pounds of perilla oil are heated to a temperature of 400 to 450 F. and are mechanically agitated until the gilsonite is completely fluxed by the perilla oil. Forty pounds of the gas-proofed tung or oiticica oil (or a mixture thereof) are then added and mechanically mixed until the oils and the gilsonite is completely incorporated into a homogeneous mass. Thinning oils may then be added to bring the paint to the desired consistency, which normally requires about 53% to 55% of the thinning oils. The driers may then be incorporated in the desired percentage.
The percentage of ingredients may, of course, vary within rather wide limits, depending upon the particular characteristics desired in the ultimate product. For example, the percentage of gilsonite in the paint base may vary from 10 to 80%, according to the intensity of the color and the hardness of the film desired. Normally this ratio will be between 25 and 60%. However, for water-proofing on certain interior surfaces it is desirable to have a much harder film, and for certain of such uses it may be desirable to increase the gilsonite to as much as 80%.
While the lower limit of 10% for the gilsonite is lower than will ordinarily be used, a satisfactory and durable paint may be made With as small a proportion of gilsonite as this by incorporating a small amount of carbon black, say 3% to 5% by Weight. 7
The percentage of tung or oiticica oil may likewise vary, but the higher the percentage thereof, the more durable will be the film produced. The preferred range is between 25 and 50% of either tung or oiticica oils, or a mixture thereof. However, the beneficial results of the combination of these gas-proofed oils with gilsonite are obtained over the entire range of Gilsonite concentration given.
In the above percentages, any difference is normally made up by a viscosity reducing oil such as perilla. In the absence of such an oil, however, the tung or oiticica oil may be used to complete the paint base.
Pigments such as iron oxide, or chrome green may be incorporated to produce paints of attractive colors and great durability.
A paint prepared in accordance with this invention not only has greater water and Weather resisting properties, but is more resistant to acids and alkalis than a paint comprising gilsonite and a drying oil other than the gas-proofed tung oil.
The term film-forming constituents as used in the claims denote those portions of the film which do not evaporate following application of the paint, but which remain to form the paint film.
The foregoing detailed description has been given for clearness of understanding only, and no unnecessary limitations should be understood therefrom, but the appended claims should be construed as broadly as permissible in view of the prior art.
Gilsonite for Mix with Asphalt
The use of bitumen (asphalt) compositions in preparing aggregate compositions (including, but not just limited to, bitumen and rock) useful as road paving material is complicated by at least three factors, each of which imposes a serious challenge to providing an acceptable product. First, the bitumen compositions must meet certain performance criteria or specifications in order to be considered useful for road paying.
For example, to ensure acceptable performance, state and federal agencies issue specifications for various bitumen applications including specifications for use as road pavement. Current Federal Highway Administration specifications require a bitumen (asphalt) product to meet defined parameters relating to properties such as viscosity, toughness, tenacity and ductility. Each of these parameters defines a critical feature of the bitumen composition, and compositions failing to meet one or more of these parameters will render that composition unacceptable for use as road pavement material. Conventional bitumen compositions frequently cannot meet all of the requirements of a particular specification simultaneously and, if these specifications are not met, damage to the resulting road can occur, including, but not necessarily limited to, permanent deformation, thermally induced cracking and flexural fatigue.
This damage greatly reduces the effective life of paved roads. In this regard, it has long been recognized that the properties of conventional bitumen compositions can be modified by the addition of other substances, such as polymers and asphaltites such as gilsonite. Gilsonite and other asphaltites are used as performance-enhancing agents for asphalt mixes.
Gilsonite-modified paving mixes achieve higher performance grades (PG) and incorporate into an asphalt blend with no need for high shear mulling as in the case with some other modifiers. The use of SBS (styrene-butadiene- styrene) polymers may be partially or totally replaced by, or complemented by the presence of gilsonite. Gilsonite-modified asphalts can have higher stability, reduced deformation, reduced temperature susceptibility and increased resistance to water stripping as compared to non-modified asphalts. A difficulty in using gilsonite as an asphalt modifier is that it is a solid, which is more difficultly handled and incorporated into a viscous bitumen.
Gilsonite for Foundry Sand Additive
The additives evaluated were sea coal, pitch, petroleum asphalt, Gilsonite of a "coarse" and "fine" grind, and blown asphalt. The tests comprised evaluating physical properties of recent sand mixes at about 125th volatile at 900°F (482.2°C) and 400th compact ability. Physical sand properties developed with non seacoal carbonaceous materials were equal to or superior to seacoal at significantly lower additive levels. Gilsonite and asphalt mixes appeared to improve physical properties of density, water requirements and green, dry, baked and hot strengths. an excellent greater improvement in foundry sand green, baked, and hot strength was obtained by increasing the fineness of grind of the Gilsonite. It's postulated the finer material provides higher sand coating. The higher strength may be attributed to improved sand wetting by the thermoplastic asphalt materials. The gas evolution curve indicated Gilsonite and asphalt reacted faster than seacoal however had way less total gas volume. Gilsonite and asphalt at one third the level of seacoal had the same total volatiles at one third the seacoal additive level. A foundry research study showed casting finish with Gilsonite was equal to seacoal and higher than most other sub statutes. Another study with system sand confirmed the laboratory results of this research on new sand mixes with respect to sand properties and casting finish.
Gilsonite for Steel Creating Additives
Gilsonite is an ingredient in many additives used in the production of steel. it's used in limestone, Lime, Magnesium, and calcium carbide additive systems. The operate of those additives is to remove impurities like sulfur, silica, and phosphorus from the molten steel and move them to the molten slag layer. Gilsonite fulfils many roles as a part in Steel creating Additives. First, Gilsonite is approximately 75th volatile at 1900°F, and once additional to the molten steel it promotes the mixing of the additives therefore the chemical reactions which will move the impurities to the molten scum layer will take place. Next, the volitiles that are given off are high in lustrous carbon, which is able to more reduce the Iron oxide to steel. though CO reduces most of the Fe3+ by indirect reduction, some should be reduced directly by elemental carbon. Finally, the portion of Gilsonite that's not volatilized could be a terribly extremely structured asphaltene structure that's nearly pure carbon. this can add carbon content to the steel. Gilsonite is an ingredient in many additives used in the production of steel. it's used in limestone, Lime, Magnesium, and calcium carbide additive systems. The operate of those additives is to remove impurities like sulfur, silica, and phosphorus from the molten steel and move them to the molten slag layer. Gilsonite fulfils many roles as a part in Steel creating Additives. First, Gilsonite is approximately 75th volatile at 1900°F, and once additional to the molten steel it promotes the mixing of the additives therefore the chemical reactions which will move the impurities to the molten scum layer will take place. Next, the volitiles that are given off are high in lustrous carbon, which is able to more reduce the Iron oxide to steel. though CO reduces most of the Fe3+ by indirect reduction, some should be reduced directly by elemental carbon. Finally, the portion of Gilsonite that's not volatilized could be a terribly extremely structured asphaltene structure that's nearly pure carbon. this can add carbon content to the steel.
Gilsonite for Cementing
A cement produced by Gilsonite is suitable for blocking or plugging an abandoned pipeline or back filling a mine shaft, tunnel or excavations contains Portland cement or a mixture of at least two components selected from Portland cement, A cementitious slurry, formulated from the cement mix, may have a density less than or equal to 1500 kg/m3, and exhibits good compressive strength.
In the formulation of the cementing composition of the invention, it is preferable to employ gilsonite in an amount ranging from approximately one-half to approximately ten times by volume the amount of the cement utilized, depending upon the result desired.
The lower range is employed where maximum strength is important; the higher range where the various qualities imparted by the gilsonite are most important.
Particle size and particle size distribution of the Gilsonite determines the strength and porosity-permeability characteristics of the set cement for any given mix ratio.
Where maximum strength is desirable, a coarse gilsonite Where lightest weight and lowest porosity-permeability are important and strength is to be sacrificed or is of little importance, an aggregate of minus 50 mesh or finer may be used.
Conditions are often encountered in the field requiring various combinations of particle size and particle size distribution. The above examples represent extremes. The mix must, however, always be pumpable through the system from the mixing point to the final point of placement of the cement slurry. The coarser the aggregate, the less that may be present in any given slurry without impeding pump ability.
For example, a cement-gilsonite ration of 1:4, using the coarse aggregate specified above, is difficult to pump and is likely to plug restricted passages in the system, whereas the same mix, using the fine aggregate specified above, will never plug if the water-cement ratio is high enough.
An amount of a petroleum solvent which depends upon the amount of gilsonite present, may be added to the wet or dry mix for wetting the surface of the gilsonite particles and causing them to form an intimate bond with casing and earth formations of the bore hole, thus preventing corrosion and minimizing pulling away of the cement from the casing and/or bore hole wall by reason of the shrinkage normal to setting of the cement.
Instead of adding the solvent directly to the mix, it may be pumped through the casing and into the cementing zone in advance of the gilsonite cement slurry.
Gilsonite for Fluid Loss Control
The invention relates to a composition comprising an HPHT fluid loss control aid, stable at elevated temperatures and which also acts as an excellent shale stabilizer, bore hold lubricant, sealant for depleted sand, and wall cake conditioner. The HPHT fluid loss control aid broadly comprises a Gilsonite (asphaltite, asfaltit, Gilsonita , uintaite, natural asphalt, natural bitumen) which also contains a surfactant such as a non-ionic surfactant.
The HPHT fluid loss control aid also contains a solubilized lignite such as causticized lignite and carbon black. The fluid loss control aid reduces HPHT filtrate loss, has good stability at elevated temperatures such as at 300 Â°F, stabilizes troublesome shales and decreases bore hole erosion, helps seal depleted sands, reduces torque and drag, causes no adverse effects on the flow properties of the properly conditioned drilling fluid, and lowers total well costs.
To achieve these and other advantages, and in accordance with the purpose of the invention, as embodied and broadly described, the invention comprises a composition comprising an HPHT fluid loss control aid stable at elevated temperatures, and which also acts as an excellent shale stabilizer, bore hole lubricant sealant for depleted sands, and wall cake conditioner.
The HPHT fluid loss control aid broadly comprises Gilsonite, an asphaltic material or solidified hydrocarbon. The Gilsonite employed according to the present invention also contains a surfactant, especially, a non-ionic surfactant.
Combination of these compounds as a HPHT fluid loss control aid, reduces HPHT filtrate loss has good stability at elevated temperatures such as at about 300 Â°F and sometimes as high as 400 Â°F, stabilizes troublesome shales and decreases bore hole erosion, helps seal depleted sands, reduces torque and drag, causes no adverse effects on the flow properties of the drilling fluid properly conditioned and lowers total well costs.
The invention also comprises a product made by combining the components of the composition as well as a product made by the process of adding the composition or product to a drilling fluid. Lastly, the invention comprises a process for controlling HPHT fluid loss in subterranean wells by adding the composition or product into a subterranean well.
Drilling fluids as used in the written description and the claims, include not only conventional drilling fluids or drilling muds including petroleum oil, synthetic oil and fresh water and salt water types as known in the art but also completion fluids and work over fluids.
It is a natural occurring Gilsonite used for HTHP filtration control in invert oil/synthetic base systems at temperatures above 400 F (205 C).
It is compatible with all invert oil / synthetic base systems and can be used both in the initial formulation or for treatment while drilling.
Initial treatment in the range of 2–10 lb/bbl. (5.71–28.53 kg/m3) is recommended, although higher concentrations may be necessary in extreme cases.
Pilot testing should be conducted to determine actual concentration needed in each case. If CONFI-TROL HT is to be added to a newly mixed mud prior to displacement, the addition should be made after all other components have been mixed thoroughly.
Gilsonite Asphasol shale inhibitor is a partially water-soluble, sulfonated organic material developed for use in most water-base drilling fluids. Gilsonite Asphasol shale inhibitor contains no surfactants as do most water-dispersible products used in shale-control applications.
Typical Physical Properties of Asphasol
Physical appearance: Black, free-flowing powder
Ph (2% solution): 7.5 – 9.5
Solubility in water: Minimum 50% by weight
Applications of Asphasol
Gilsonite Asphasol shale inhibitor can be used in most water-base drilling fluids. Gilsonite Asphasol shale inhibitor is a free-flowing powder and can be added directly to the mud system through the mixing hopper. Unlike some shale control additives, it is not necessary to pre-mix the Gilsonite Asphasol inhibitor with oil and it contains no surfactants.
Normal concentrations of Gilsonite Asphasol shale inhibitor range from 2 to 10 lb/bbl.
(5.7 to 28.5 kg/m3) for most applications.
Advantages of Gilsonite Asphasol
Asphasol application is as below:
Contains no surfactants
Premixing is not required
Inhibits swelling and water-wetting of shales
Reduces High-Temperature, High-Pressure (HTHP) fluid loss
Reduces torque and drag
Improves wall cake quality
Asphasol Physical Specification
Gilsonite natural asphalt (asphaltite) additive is a mineral bitumen hydrocarbon in granular form. Its particle size varies between -4 and -200 It is effective at bottom hole temperatures (BHTs) between 60Â° and 230Â°F (16Â° and 110Â°C). Typical additive concentrations range from -5 to -50 lb/ of cement muds.
The low specific gravity of Gilsonite powder helps improve its ability to control lost circulation. However, this feature can also cause the additive to separate to the top of thin slurries and slurries containing dispersants. Adding 2% or more bentonite to the slurry will help prevent separation.
Gilsonite Chemical Composition
The environmental granular asphalt which sizes are of 0.1/40MM This recycled granular asphalt is mostly used for new roads layers and finished lines our products are backed by the European union certificates with an SGS report on each shipment.
Asphalt granular Primary use:
This type of granulate is used for stabilizing roads (second layers) and also for the first layer, mixed with cement (2%). Bitumen emulsion (2%) or any other binding.
As a result, the roads can be constructed at less cost and these roads are less harmful to the environment and much more durable.
Product details asphalt granular
We sell asphalt granular 0.1/40 also known as bitumen asphalt. Our products has oeso international disposal code; GG 160 and eural code.170302
Chemical composition (pak)50 benzo (A)pyreen (confirmed by evoa) this asphalt granular is a green-list disposal composition product.
Gilsonite General Solubility
Gilsonite products are readily soluble without heating in aromatic solvents (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) and in most chlorinated solvents.
It also soluble without heating in Aliphatic and low aromatic solvents (VM&P and other Naphtha, Ink Oils and Mineral Spirits), but Mixing time is longer. Without heating, the pulverized grade is recommended. Gilsonite has limited solubility in most alcohols and ketones.
Gilsonite Friendly to Water
Water-based Gilsonite is natural bitumen environmentally safe and specially formulated to protect hole shale water base drilling.
The drilling fluid serves a number of functions including taking heat away from the drill bit and facilitating the return of drill cuttings to the surface. There are three main types of drilling mud, including Gilsonite muds.
The present invention deals with the consequences of using water-based drilling Gilsonite muds. When the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling mud in the wellbore exceeds the inwardly acting pressure of the surrounding formation, the drilling mud is forced into the surrounding formation through the walls of the wellbore.
In many applications, the drilling Gilsonite mud is intended to be deposited in and/or on the wellbore wall, forming so-called “filter cake” which, amongst other things, helps to limit the invasion of formation fluids into the wellbore; reduces the risk of the wellbore collapsing during drilling and resists the escape of drilling fluids into the formation.