Fuel Oil / Mazut
What is Fuel Oil-Mazut?
Is a heavy, low quality fuel oil, used in generating plants and similar applications. In the Middle East, South Africa and Western Europe, mazut is blended or broken down, with the end product being diesel.
Mazut may be used for heating houses in the former USSR and in countries of the Far East that do not have the facilities to blend or break it down into more conventional petro-chemicals. In the West, furnaces that burn mazut are commonly called "waste oil" heaters or "waste oil" furnaces.
Mazut-100 is a fuel oil that is manufactured to GOST specifications, for example GOST 10585-75 or 99. (GOST is the Russian system of standards, much like ASTM, for example). Mazut is almost exclusively manufactured in the Iran, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. This product is typically used for larger boilers in producing steam since the BTU content is high. The most important consideration (not the only consideration) when grading this fuel is the sulfur content, which can mostly be affected by the source feedstock. For shipment purposes, this product is considered a “dirty oil” product, and because viscosity drastically affect whether it is able to be pumped, shipping has unique requirements.
The main difference between the different types of Mazut-100 is the content of sulphur. The grades are represented by these sulfuric levels:
• ”Very Low Sulphur” is mazut with a sulphur content of 0.5%
• ”Low Sulphur” is a mazut with a sulphur content of 0.5-1.0%
• ”Normal Sulphur” is a mazut with a sulphur content of 1.0-2.0%
• ”High Sulphur” is a mazut with a sulphur content of 2.0-3.5%
Very Low Sulfur mazut is generally made from the lowest sulfur crude feedstocks. Low to high sulfur mazut is available from Iran. The technical specifications are represented in the same way, according to the Iranian standard 10585-99. The Iranian origin mazut demands higher prices.
Structure of Mazut 280-380:
These products are remaining heavy sections of distillation towers using that sets by using light oil cuts and are offered as fuel.
Composition percentage of constituent hydrocarbons, gave appropriate heating value to fuel, and the amount of metal doesn’t cause any problem in consumer systems.
Application of Mazut 280-380:
It is offered to use it in power houses and industries which in their ignition system there is intermediate fuel oil.
Although the following trends generally hold true, different organizations may have different numerical specifications for the six fuel grades. The boiling point and carbon chain length of the fuel increases with fuel oil number. Viscosity also increases with number, and the heaviest oil has to be heated to get it to flow. Price usually decreases as the fuel number increases.
- Number 1 fuel oil is a volatile distillate oil intended for vaporizing pot-type burners. It is the kerosene refinery cut that boils off right after the heavy naphtha cut used for gasoline. Older names include coal oil, stove oil and range oil.
- Number 2 fuel oil is a distillate home heating oil. Trucks and some cars use similar diesel fuel with a cetane number limit describing the ignition quality of the fuel. Both are typically obtained from the light gas oil cut. Gas oil refers to the original use of this fraction in the late 19th and early 20th centuries – the gas oil cut was used as an enriching agent for carburetted water gas manufacture.
- Number 3 fuel oil was a distillate oil for burners requiring low-viscosity fuel. ASTM merged this grade into the number 2 specification, and the term has been rarely used since the mid-20th century.
- Number 4 fuel oil is a commercial heating oil for burner installations not equipped with preheaters. It may be obtained from the heavy gas oil cut.
- Number 5 fuel oil is a residual-type industrial heating oil requiring preheating to 170–220 °F (77–104 °C) for proper atomization at the burners.This fuel is sometimes known as Bunker B. It may be obtained from the heavy gas oil cut,or it may be a blend of residual oil with enough number 2 oil to adjust viscosity until it can be pumped without preheating.
- Number 6 fuel oil is a high-viscosity residual oil requiring preheating to 220–260 °F (104–127 °C). Residual means the material remaining after the more valuable cuts of crude oil have boiled off. The residue may contain various undesirable impurities including 2 percent water and one-half percent mineral soil. This fuel may be known as residual fuel oil (RFO), by the Navy specification of Bunker C, or by the Pacific Specification of PS-400.Mazut is a residual fuel oil often derived from Russian petroleum sources and is either blended with lighter petroleum fractions or burned directly in specialized boilers and furnaces. It is also used as a petrochemical feedstock. In the Russian practice, though, "mazut" is an umbrella term roughly synonymous with the fuel oil in general, that covers most of the types mentioned above, except types 1 and 2/3, for which separate terms exist (kerosene and diesel fuel/solar oil respectively — Russian practice doesn't differentiate between diesel fuel and heating oil). This is furher separated in two grades, "naval mazut" being analogous to grades 4 and 5, and "furnace mazut", a heaviest residual fraction of the crude, almost exactly corresponding to the number 6 fuel oil and further graded by viscosity and sulphur content.