Latin American Energy Outlook: natural gas Leads The way
On thursday, december 8 Dr. Fernando Cesar Ferreira, executive secretary of the latin america Energy Organization (OLADE), presented the energy outlook for 2017 to the latin america Energy Forum in Houston.
OLADE could be a public intergovernmental organization founded in 1973, composed of 27 member countries that are represented by their Ministers of Energy.
Dr. Ferreira discussed the current situation in the energy sector in latin america and the Caribbean, light the fact that over 23 million people within the region are still living without access to electricity. millions of people use traditional biomass (in specific wood and plant) for cooking and heating. He forecasted that electricity demand can grow by 4.1% p.a. and electricity generation by 4.5% per year.
Consumption of oil and natural gas in latin america exceeds the world average, while coal and nuclear energy are less common sources of energy.
Population access to electricity has dramatically increased since the seventies. In 1970, only 500th of latin american people had access to electricity, whereas the current average electrification rate is 880 yards.
Uruguay has the highest electrification rate, with 99 of its population with access to electricity, followed by Barbados, Costa Rica, Chile and Brazil. Haiti is the latin american country with the lowest electrification rate, just 28%.
Hydroelectric power plants are the most sources of energy generation in latin american countries, with the exception of mexico and Panama, in which wind turbines overtook hydro as a source of energy production.
Venezuela is the country with the largest proven reserves of natural gas. However, such resources stay mostly fallow thanks to the country’s financial crisis.
Mexico is the largest natural gas producer followed by Argentina, that has seen a steep decline in production in recent years.
Mexico, Argentina and Brazil have seen the strongest increase in natural gas consumption and this trend is expected to continue within the next 10-15 years.
Forty percent of natural gas is used for electricity production. However, the demand for natural gas can increase within the transportation sector. In fact, in latin american countries, the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) for vehicles is widespread and it's common to find CNG as a fuel in gas stations.
Dr. Ferreira forecasted that natural gas would lead energy demand in latin america in a “business as usual” scenario, characterized by lack of public intervention in support of other energy sources. latin american countries need to invest in field exploration to boost their domestic production and they need to build new regasification plants so as to import liquefied natural gas (LNG).
He underlined the determination of many latin american governments in implementing the provisions of the COP21 agreement to reduce carbon emissions and increase the use of renewable energy. However, the growth of renewable energy is contingent upon government intervention and therefore the implementation of COP21 wouldn't reduce the growth of natural gas consumption within the region.
Latin American countries can need substantial investments in infrastructure to guarantee a sustainable energy future to their populations.